**Chapter 9**

** **

**My Second Experiment**

"It
is the mark of an educated mind to rest satisfied with the degree of precision
which the nature of the subject admits and not to seek exactness where only an
approximation is possible."

Aristotle (384 BC -
322 BC)

**Where We are Going
Next**

My first experiment
proves, using the path of light, that the light ** from lasers** must
have path momentum. I will call this
"

In this chapter and
the next chapter we will look at whether the light that bounces off of mirrors
also adds path momentum, which I will call "**mirror path momentum**"
("

Because we are going
to use a little mathematics in this chapter, let us first look at the
experiment in the last chapter and redo it using actual mathematics.

Thus, let us assume:

1) The speed of light
is ** exactly** 300,000 kps.

2) The speed of the
earth towards Leo is ** exactly** 370 kps.

These are accurate
enough numbers for our purposes here.
Let us assume the experiment is done at 50 meters (i.e. the mirror is
placed 50 meters from the laser).

Light travels
300,000,000 **meters** per second. Thus, it takes 50 / 300,000,000, or .0000001666... seconds for
light to travel 50 meters. During this
time, the earth travels .061666... meters (.0000001666... times 370,000

Let us now build a
triangle, with sides a, b and c.

Side b = 50 m

Angle
A is the angle opposite Side a. While
it is true that Side c is the actual path of the laser beam, it is not
mathematically significant to this discussion and will be ignored.

(Note:
it may seem strange that I am using approximations for the speed of light and
for our velocity towards Leo and that I am ignoring the actual path of the
laser beam, but that I am using 6 or more decimals of accuracy at other
times. My only concern is whether my
equipment is capable of detecting a calculated distance, thus there is nothing
lost in using approximations mixed in with trig formulas. See the quote at the beginning of this
chapter.)

Since
by my first experiment, I got a "dot," then we can conclude that
Angle A is the angle at which the laser beam is affected by path momentum. We will now calculate this angle:

If
we had a right triangle, with one side of 50 m and another side of .061666...
m, then Angle A = 0.070665 degrees. To calculate it:

Angle A = arctan (a / b)

Angle A = arctan (.061666... / 50)

Angle A = 0.070665 degrees

Angle
A represents the angle at which light exits a laser beam because of path
momentum.

Now that we know this
angle we could calculate how far the earth moves in the time it takes light to
travel 50 m. This calculation is done
as follows:

side a = (50 * sin 0.070665
degrees) * sin 89.929335 degrees

side a = .061666... m

Obviously, this is
same number we started with because it is the number we plugged into Side a
above (this was just a sanity check).

Note that the angle
that was calculated was designed to "get a dot." In other words, since my first experiment
always got a "dot," the angle of path momentum was calculated so that
the laser beam would hit the same spot every time.

Let a "**path
momentum unit**" be a part of the experiment at which an angle
of 0.070665 is

**Simplifying the
Visualizations**

Before going on it is
necessary to simplify the visualizations (assuming the photon theory) before
things get out of hand. In the prior
chapter I made 25 different readings, over a 24 hour period, to obtain my
results. In this chapter, because we
will be dealing with a mirror, doing a simple globe experiment is not as
practical. The good news is that we can
reduce the number of markings that we need to study down to two.

Let us study exactly
two angles that light leaves the laser.
First, we will study the angle when the relationship between the laser
vector and our vector towards Leo is at its closest to perpendicular. In fact, for discussion purposes we will
assume it is perpendicular and that Leo is to the right of the laser (i.e. to
the right to a person standing behind the laser). Second, we will study the angle 12 hours later, when the laser
and target have switched places relative to our path towards Leo. I mentioned this in the prior chapter during
the globe exercise. Let us do a simple
experiment.

Suppose there is a
long, narrow room. Now let us draw a
line down the middle of the long axis of the room, which is half-way between
the walls that form this long axis. In
other words, this line goes down the middle of the room, along the long axis of
the room.

Now let us position
two people that are standing face-to-face, three meters apart. A line drawn between these two people is
perpendicular to the "**line along the long axis**,"
meaning the line that goes down the middle of the long axis of the room. Let the center point of the line between the
two people touch the "line along the long axis" (i.e. the two people
are equidistance from the line along the long axis). Now let us put the two people at one end of the line along the
long axis, and let us put a table or chair at the other end of the line along
the long axis (i.e. at the other end of the room). Let us name these people Person L and Person T. As Person L faces Person T, the table is to
Person L's right.

Person L represents
the laser. Person T represents the
target the laser is aimed at. The table
or chair represents Leo. The line along
the long axis represents our path towards Leo.
If Person L gently throws a ball to Person T, this will represent firing
a laser beam at the target.

Now let us do an
experiment. Let Person L gently throw a
ball such that it is aimed 1 meter to the **right** of Person
T (from Person L's perspective). Note
that this angle is in the direction of Leo, meaning it lands between Person T's
original position and Leo. In the time
it takes the ball to get to Person T, let Person T moves 1 meter to Person' T's
left (1 meter equals 1 earth unit in this crude case) or 1 meter to Person L's
right. Note that the ball hits the
center of Person T. The angle at which
Person L throws the ball represents the path momentum of laser light as it
leaves the laser. From the perspective
of Person L, the ball (i.e. the laser beam) leaves at an angle to his

Now let Person L and
Person T switch places. This will
represent the positions of the laser and target 12 hours later, meaning after
12 hours of the earth's rotation. Now
Person L will have to throw the ball to his **left** (the
angle is always towards Leo), because the path momentum is now going to carry
the laser beam to the left of the laser (from the perspective of the laser or Person
L), in the general direction of Leo.

If the reader is
having problems understanding why the two people need to switch places, go back
to the globe exercise and note that the laser (one end of the toothpick) and
the target (the other end of the toothpick) have switched placed after the
globe has been rotated for 12 hypothetical hours. Because of path momentum the laser beam will **always**
angle away from the laser

In this second case,
Person T moves one earth unit to her right or one earth unit to the **left**
of Person L. Because the laser beam
always angles towards Leo, the path momentum of the laser beam angles to the
left, and the ball again hits person T.
This represents my first experiment at the 12 hour mark.

We have seen in two
instances that Person T received the ball, in the original or first throw and a
throw 12 hours later. We can therefore
assume that if we had done the complete 25 throws that we would have
consistently hit Person T. Thus, we can
reduce the number of throws (i.e. measurement points) from 25 down to 2.

This simple exercise
replicates the first experiment discussed in the prior chapter.

**One Mirror**

Let us suppose that
we have a laser pointed at a mirror 50 m away.
Let us suppose that the **actual aim** of the laser
beam is exactly normal or perpendicular to the mirror. Let us fire the laser at the mirror. Because of path momentum, the angle at which
the laser beam hits the mirror will be exactly 89.929335 degrees (i.e. 90 minus
0.070665). Thus, because this is a
mirror, the light will exactly exit the mirror at the same angle. In essence, the mirror creates a "

Let me summarize this
as follows. If a mirror **reflects**
one path momentum unit, and does

**One Mirror -
Simplified**

Let us return to our
two-person example above. Suppose
Person T holds a hypothetical mirror.

T0) Time 0: Person L
releases the ball. Both Person L and
Person T are at "origin," and are across from each other.

T1) Time 1: Person L
and Person T move 1 earth unit from origin between T0 and T1 and are both
standing on "**position earth unit 1**" (i.e. 1
earth unit from origin), across from each other. The ball hits the mirror and the mirror angles the ball at the
same angle that Person L threw it. The
mirror aims the ball towards position earth unit 2.

T2) Time 2: Person L
and Person T move another earth unit between T1 and T2 (making a total of 2
earth units that both of them have moved).
Both Person L and Person T are standing on position earth unit 2 when
the ball arrives back to Person L's side.
The ball lands where Person L is located because the mirror reflected
the path momentum unit that Person L originally used.

Twelve hours later,
the reverse would happen and the ball would again hit Person L at T2 only in
this case everything moves to the left.
Thus, we predict a dot for the entire experiment.

(Note: In this case
the target is the laser itself, thus it would be necessary to have the mirror
tilted slightly up (but not side-to-side) so that the beam would hit directly
above the laser.)

Now let's do this
same example with the mirror **adding** one path momentum
unit.

**One Mirror - Adding
One Path Momentum Unit**

T0) Person L releases
the ball. Both Person L and Person T
are at "origin," and are across from each other.

T1) Person L and
Person T move 1 earth unit from origin between T0 and T1 and are both standing
on "position earth unit 1," across from each other. The ball hits the mirror and the mirror
angles the ball at the same angle that Person L threw it plus the mirror adds
one path momentum unit. This means that
at T1, the mirror is aiming the ball at "position earth unit 3."

T2) Person L and
Person T move another earth unit between T1 and T2 (making a total of 2 earth
units that both of them have moved).
Both Person L and Person T are standing on position earth unit 2 when the
ball arrives back to Person L's side.
The ball lands at position earth unit 3. Thus, the ball lands one earth unit to the **right**
of where Person L is standing when the ball arrives.

Now let us do this
experiment twelve hours later.

T0) Person L throws
the ball. Both Person L and Person T
are at "origin," and are across from each other.

T1) Person L and
Person T move 1 earth unit from origin between T0 and T1 and are both standing
on position earth unit 1, across from each other. It should be noted that because Person L and Person T have
switched positions, that from the perspective of Person L, position earth unit
1 is 1 earth unit to the **left** of Person L. In other words, everything is moving to the

T2) Person L and
Person T move another earth unit between T1 and T2 (making a total of two earth
units that both of them have moved).
Both Person L and Person T are standing on position earth unit 2 when
the ball arrives back to Person L's side.
The ball lands at position earth unit 3, which is one earth unit to the **left**
of Person L.

In the original case
the ball landed one earth unit to the **right** of Person L,
and 12 hours later the ball landed one earth unit to the

The essence of
expecting a pattern is that the ball lands in exactly the same spot, **relative
to Person L's location when the ball lands**, for the entire 24
hours, on in this case, in both instances.
Relative to Person L, in the first experiment the ball lands to his

It will become
critical later in the chapter to remember that we must keep track of both the
laser beam and the location of Person L.
It is where the laser beam lands, relative to where Person L is located,
that determines whether we get a dot or a pattern of some kind. We don't really care at this point what the
pattern looks like, we are only concerned that we do not get a dot.

**A Potential Problem**

Let us return to the
example where the mirror did **not** add a path momentum unit,
it simply reflected a path momentum unit.
We predicted a dot. However,
there is a potential problem with the above analysis. What if our equipment was not set up correctly, and the

However, what if the
mirror **added** one path momentum unit in this case? If it did, the laser would add one path
momentum unit, the laser beam would arrive at a 90 degree angle, and the mirror
would

Thus, we have a
situation where if the mirror did not add a path momentum unit, a dot results
(the case where the mirror is normal to the **aimed** laser
beam), and we have a situation where if the mirror did add a path momentum
unit, a dot results (the case where the mirror is normal to the

Because the motion of
our earth adds such a small angle to the laser beam, my equipment was not
accurate enough to guarantee that the ** aimed** laser beam was normal
to the mirror (it is more complicated to do than it looks because you

**Tilting the Mirror To
One Side - No Added MPM**

The only way to
resolve the problem of using a mirror that happened to be normal to the actual
laser beam was to tilt the mirror to one side to guarantee that the mirror
could not possibly be normal to the actual laser beam by accident. In other words, the mirror in my second
experiment was tilted so that the returning laser beam hit about two meters to
the **right** of the laser position (looking from behind the
laser). This guarantees that the

Let us first
calculate how much we need to tilt the mirror, to one side, in order for the
returning beam to hit 2 meters to the right of the laser. It should be emphasized that the line/vector
between the laser and mirror is normal to the wall behind the laser, meaning
the entire affect of the tilt is **after** the laser beam hits
the mirror. In calculating this we will
need to ignore all types of path momentum for the moment.

Side a = 2 m

Side b = 50 m

Angle A = atan (2 / 50)

Angle A = 2.290610 degrees

This angle assumes
there is no path momentum of the laser beam.
Since there must be LPM, we must add .070665 to the above angle to
determine at what angle the light is actually hitting the mirror.

2.290610 + .070665 =
2.361275

Now we must calculate
how far the reflected laser beam will miss the laser (assuming there is no ** added**
path momentum by the mirror):

Side a = 50 * tan 2.361275 degrees

Side a = 2.061768 m

This number is almost
exactly equal to the 2 meter intentional miss plus the typical .061666... m
miss caused by laser path momentum. The
difference is unmeasurable (using my equipment).

At this point we must
calculate exactly where the laser is when the beam hits the wall, and exactly
where the beam hits the wall.

T0) Laser is at origin.

T1) Laser is .061666... m from origin (towards
Leo)

T2) Laser moves another .061666... m, making a
total of .123333... m

T0) Beam is at origin

T1) Beam is at .061666... m from origin (towards
Leo) when it hits the mirror

T2) Beam moves another 2.061768 m (see above),
making a total of 2.123435 m

The difference
between where the Laser is and the Beam is is 2.000102 m. Of course it is to the **right**
of the laser. This result is not
surprising.

**Tilting the Mirror To
One Side - No Added MPM - 12 hrs. later**

Now we must go
through the same exercise 12 hours later, when the laser and the target/mirror
have switched places. This time we need
to subtract the laser path momentum from the mirror tilt. The reason is that the mirror is still
tilted to the right (the mirror never moves), but the path momentum is now to
the left (i.e. towards Leo) after switching places.

2.290610 - .070665 =
2.219945

Now we must calculate
how far the reflected laser beam will miss the laser (assuming there is no ** added**
path momentum by the mirror):

Side a = b * tan A

Side a = 50 * tan 2.219945 degrees

Side a = 1.938238 m

This number is almost
exactly equal to the 2 meter intentional miss **minus** the
typical .061666... m miss caused by laser path momentum. The difference is unmeasurable.

At this point we must
calculate exactly where the laser is when the beam hits the wall, and exactly
where the beam hits the wall.

T0) Laser is at origin.

T1) Laser is -.061666... m from origin (left of
laser origin)

T2) Laser moves another -.061666... m, making a
total of -.123333... m to the left of the laser origin.

T0) Beam is at origin

T1) Beam is at -.061666... m from origin (left
of beam/laser origin)

T2) Beam moves another 1.938238 m (see above),
making a total of 1.876571 m to the **right** of the laser
origin. This is predominantly because
the mirror is tilted to send the light to the right of the laser (from the
perspective of the laser).

The **difference**
between where the Laser is and where the Beam is is 1.999904 m. As above, it is to the

The difference
between 2.000102 and 1.999904 (12 hours later) is unmeasurable. Thus we conclude that we would get a dot if
the mirror is tilted and the mirror does **not** add path
momentum. The reader should pay close
attention to the fact that it is where the beam hits the wall,

**Tilting the Mirror To
One Side - Added MPM**

The tilt of the
mirror in this case is exactly the same (the mirror is not touched during the
experiment, nor is the laser). But in
this case we must add one path momentum for the **reflected**
laser path momentum

The reader should
remember that before we tilted the mirror, assuming no MPM was added, we got a
dot. We also got a dot if we did tilt
the mirror, assuming no MPM was added. On
the other hand, we did **not** get a dot if we assumed MPM was
added. We will come to the same
conclusion if we tilt the mirror.

Let us add the two
path momentum units (one reflected from the laser and one added) to the tilt:

2.290610 + .070665 +
.070665 = 2.431940

Now we must calculate
how far the reflected laser beam will miss the laser (assuming there ** is
added** path momentum by the mirror):

Side a = b * tan A

Side a = 50 * tan 2.431940 degrees

Side a =
2.123543 m

This number is almost
exactly equal to the 2 meter intentional miss plus ** double** the
typical .061666... m miss caused by laser path momentum. This is what we expected because the mirror
is now adding path momentum in this case.

At this point we must
calculate exactly where the laser is when the beam hits the wall, and exactly
where the beam hits the wall.

T0) Laser is at origin.

T1) Laser is .061666... m from origin (towards
Leo)

T2) Laser moves another .061666... m, making a
total of .123333... m

T0) Beam is at origin

T1) Beam is at .061666... m from origin (towards
Leo)

T2) Beam moves another 2.123543 m (see above),
making a total of 2.185210 m

The difference
between where the Laser is and the Beam is is 2.061876 m. This does not surprise us since we added one
path momentum unit for the mirror.

**Tilting the Mirror To
One Side - Added MPM - 12 hrs. later**

Now we must go
through the same exercise 12 hours later, when the laser and the target/mirror
have switched places. This time we need
to subtract the ** laser** path momentum from the mirror tilt (because
it is reflected) and we must subtract the

2.290610 - .070665 -
.070665 = 2.149281

Now we must calculate
how far the reflected laser beam will miss the laser (assuming there is ** added**
path momentum by the mirror):

Side a = b * tan A

Side a = 50 * tan 2.149281 degrees

Side a = 1.876481 m

This number is almost
exactly equal to the 2 meter intentional miss **minus** the
typical .061666... m miss caused by laser path momentum

T0) Laser is at origin.

T1) Laser is -.061666... m from origin (left of
laser origin)

T2) Laser moves another -.061666... m, making a
total of -.123333... m to the left of the laser origin.

T0) Beam is at origin

T1) Beam is at -.061666... m from origin (left
of beam/laser origin)

T2) Beam moves another 1.876481 m (see above),
making a total of 1.814815 m to the **right** of the laser
origin. This is predominantly because
the mirror is tilted to send the light to the right of the laser (from the
perspective of the laser).

The difference
between where the Laser is and the Beam is is 1.938148 m.

The difference
between 2.061876 (origin) and 1.938148 (12 hours later) is .123728 m which is
equal to 12.3728 centimeters. This is a
measurable amount with my equipment.
Thus we conclude that we would **not** get a dot if the
mirror adds path momentum. This is
consistent with the result before we tilted the mirror.

**The Actual Experiment**

In the actual
experiment, my laser died at the 14 hour mark, but the second 12 hours of the
experiment would have been a mirror image of the first 12 hours (i.e. it would
have been the other half of any pattern), thus the experiment lasted long
enough to make a determination. I got a
dot for 14 hours, thus I can safely conclude I would have gotten a dot for 24
hours, if my laser had lasted that long.
This means that this second experiment proves that MPM is **false**,
meaning a mirror does