3) DEFINITIONS FOR THE THEORY---[Return home ]
The electron's theory is a theory where a few particles of real matter (hypersound-standing-waves) exist in the Universe.
In this case, if the frames are composed of positive and negative macroscopic particles in the same weak quantities (atoms), no natural relative force is able to modify the velocity of the frames and thus they have a uniform vectorial velocity relatively to the rest frame or the gas, except when a great quantity of non-balanced macroscopic charged particules (electron) are considered (electric force on paper for example) or if a great quantity of electromagnetic energy is sent in space (radiation pressure).
When there are zones where there are a lot of particles, the gravity theory will show that the speed of light (hypersound) decreases towards the massive objects.
But this change of the light speed is responsible of gravity (by refraction of the matter's hypersound-waves) and thus the frames may be difficult to maintain at a uniform speed relatively to space, except with thrusters.
Such frames will not be considered here, but later in the gravity theory.
Nevertheless, there is a slight philosophical problem if the gaseous ether is also in motion or in rotation relatively to something other in space (this will be the suject of a theory for the 21st century).
We consider thus that either, there is no motion of this kind, or that the physical laws are not effected by such a collective motion of the ether's particules.
We may convince ourself of that in considering that the cosmonauts in the space shuttle have no problem to speak between them, even if the air inside is moving at a high speed in space. The behavior of sound-waves seems thus not affected by a collective motions of the air's particules (nitrogen and oxygen).
Later, when the gravity theory will be established, new frames will be defined to be more accurate with the new results.
Different sort of frames will be used in the theory (and without any contradiction !).
But they use unit-lengths and clocks built at rest in the rest frame or calibrated as explained below.
A) Galileo's frame
When a frame is in motion in ether (absolute velocity v measured in the rest frame), the lengths contracts in the direction of motion according to L= Lo.sqrt(1-bb) with b=v/c and the frequency of the time-base of the clocks decreases according to the same formula.
Thus, if the metrics in the moving frame are artificially mofified in order to cancel the classical Fitzgerald and Lorentz' contraction in using longer unit-lengths and if PLL's (Phase Locked Loops) are used between the time-base and the counters of the clocks to cancel time dilation, the frame will be called a Galileo's frame.
In this case, the space-time-coordinates transformations to use are the well-known Galileo's transformations: x'= x-vt , t'=t, y'=y, z'=z between K (rest frame) and K' (moving frame).
When the metrics are not corrected, it will be shown that the transformations to use are the Galileo's Transformations With (natural) Metric Change ( abr: GTWMC):
y'=y and z'=z with b=v/c between K (rest frame) and K' (moving one).
And the frames will be called GTWMC-frames. They are the true physical frames in which the " round-trip " speed of light has the incredible property to be constant for any direction in space or frame's absolute velocity (derived in the theory).
C ) Einsteinian-frames.
In the theory, it will be shown that when in a moving frame, the clocks are synchronized on the time signals from the master clock, in considering erroneously that the one-way speed of light is c in any direction in the frame, an error of synchronization of the other clocks (than the master clock) occurs which leads to clocks not synchronized according to the formula t'(x') = t'(o')-vx'/cc in the planes orthogonal and along the X' axis of the GTWMC natural frame.
Nevertheless, even if it is dangerous and difficult to work physically with clocks not synchronized, the use of such clocks leads to derive immediately the Lorentz' Transformations between the moving erroneously synchronized frame and the rest frame:
y'=y and z'=z
As the frame is obtained with the erroneous synchronization method of Einstein in his " famous " 1905 paper, and because the transformations obtained are the Lorentz' transformations, the frame will be called an Einsteinian frame.
It is important to note that such a frame is not physical, because the clocks are not synchronized. That means, according to the formula: t'(x')=t'(o')-vx'/cc, that at a fictitious identical erroneous new time t'(x') we need different true times t'(o') to obtain it. That means that in an Einsteinian frame some events along the X' axis are in the future or in the past at the same erroneous time t'(x').
This strange result is the origin of the paradoxes of the " theory " of relativity, because the " principle of relativity " of Einstein leads us to consider erroneously these clocks as to be as well synchronized as in the rest frame where the speed of light is really isotropically c. Thus, if we measure a length in K' from the rest frame, there is a true contraction, and when we measure a length in the rest frame from the moving frame, the length is obviously dilated (the contrary!) but is unfortunately also considered to be contracted by the physical error of time-travel due to a bad synchronization. This fact will be clarified later in showing that the lengths' contraction and time's dilation are modified when the settings of the clocks are modified.
But, this kind of frame has usefull mathematical properties (change of variable in integrals) which will be used several times in the theory.
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